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菌类科普:蛹虫草 Science of fungus: cordyceps militaris
发布时间:2019年03月21日

 

 

蛹虫草为子囊菌门,肉座目,麦角菌科、虫草属的模式种。学名为Cordyceps militaris,?#32622;?#21271;蛹虫草,有地区亦称为踊虫草,一般把活体虫蛹培养的北虫草称为蛹虫草,两者实际上是同种真菌。

Cordyceps militaris is a model species of ascomycete, meatidae, ergot and cordyceps genera. The scientific name is Cordyceps militaris, also known as Cordyceps militaris, and it is also referred to as gliorhyceps in some areas. Generally speaking, Cordyceps militaris cultivated by the living body is called Cordyceps militaris, which are actually the same kind of fungus.


蛹虫草世界性分布,天然资源数量很少。1950年,德国科学家Cunningham观察到被蛹虫草寄生的昆虫组织不易腐烂,进而从中分离出一种抗菌性物质,3'-脱氧腺苷,定名为虫草素。由子座(即草部分,又称子实体)与菌核(即昆虫的尸体部分)两部分组成的复合体。多感染鳞翅目昆虫的蛹。中医认为,虫草酸(甘露醇)入肺肾二经,既能补?#25105;酰?#21448;能补肾阳,主治肾虚,阳痿遗精,腰膝酸痛,病后虚弱,久咳虚弱,劳咳痰血,自汗盗汗等,是唯一的一种能同时平衡、调节阴阳的中药。


蛹虫草?#29616;?#20908;虫夏草,具有几个无可比拟的?#35834;?/span>:

一是蛹虫草为虫草属的模式种,分布广泛,为世界各国学者所认识和接受。

二是蛹虫草已在?#26031;?#26465;件下育成了完整子座。

三是蛹虫草含有虫草菌素和虫草多糖,其独特药理作用已日益引起药学界的高度重视。由于蛹虫草具有以上?#35834;悖?#25104;为虫草属中药用虫草菌中的佼佼者。

事实上,在一般情况下,特定的生物体有特定的生物化学?#20174;Γ?#29305;定的生物化学?#20174;?#25165;能产生特定的生物物?#30465;?#23601;冬虫夏草而言,各种营养成?#31181;?#26377;通过冬虫夏草菌的生物体吸收、合成的生物化学作用,才能同时形成虫草素、虫草酸和虫草多糖等多种生物活性物质,其他生物方法或?#26031;?#21270;学方法是不能同时达到的。?#26031;?#21270;学方法能够合成其中的一种而难以同时合成多种。冬虫夏草菌是一种生物?#20174;?#22120;,不管使用什么方法生产,其合成的生物活性物质是一样的。这些生物活性物质的保健和药用价值相同。虫草素、虫草酸和虫草多糖是冬虫夏草菌特有的物质,是冬虫夏草特殊功效的主要指标。而恰恰是这些指标,在?#26031;?#29615;境优裕条件下生长的北冬虫夏草含量可以比天然条件下生长得更高。?#26031;?#22521;养的北冬虫夏草的蛋白?#30465;被?#37240;、维生素等含量均达到或超过天然冬虫夏草的水?#20581;?#34429;然?#26031;?#22521;养的北冬虫夏草中的个别营养成?#33268;?#20302;于天然冬虫夏草水平,但这些营养成分是可以通过研究加以提高的。


冬虫夏草与人参、鹿茸齐名为为中国传统的三大补品而驰名中外,国内外许多专家对北虫草营养化学成份,药理及临床效果的研究,都基本上和冬虫夏草相同,主要有保?#25105;?#32958;,止血化痰,调节身体机能,主治肺结核咳血,阳痿遗精,腰膝酸痛,美容护肤,神精衰弱,糖尿病,升白血球,防癌、抗癌,对化疗作用也很大。?#26031;?#26685;培的北虫草药用功效与野生虫草的功效相差无?#31119;?#26576;些方面的医用表现甚至优于野生虫草。药化、药理和临床实验证明蛹虫草完全可以作为冬虫夏草的代用品。经研究证明,?#26031;?#22521;养的北冬虫夏草医药临床效果,与天然的冬虫夏草相同,同样能够调节全身功能、提高免疫能力、增强巨噬细胞的吞噬功能、促进抗体的形成,主要有保?#25105;?#32958;养肝、止咳平喘祛痰、润肤防皱抗衰?#31232;?#25239;菌抗炎、镇?#30149;?#25193;张血管、降?#33073;?#21387;、降?#33073;?#31958;、抗疲劳、耐缺氧等作用。?#26031;?#21271;冬虫夏草主治:虚痨咳血、腰膝酸痛、阳痿遗精、神经衰弱、心悸失眠、盗汗、心率失常、食欲不振、鼻咽癌、肺气肿、肺结核、气管炎、哮喘症、肝炎、肾炎、肾虚、糖尿病、尿频及放、化疗后白细胞减少等症。

Cordyceps militaris worldwide distribution, the number of natural resources is very small. In 1950, German scientist Cunningham observed that insect tissues parasitic by cordyceps militaris are not perishable, and then isolated an antibacterial substance, 3' -deoxyadenosine, named cordycepin. A complex consisting of a subunit (the grass part, also known as the fruiting body) and a sclerotium (the corpse part of an insect). Pupae infected with lepidoptera. Chinese medicine believes that cordyceps acid (mannitol) into the lung kidney two channels, both can fill the lung Yin, but also can fill the kidney Yang, treating kidney deficiency, impotence spermatorrhea, waist and knee pain, weak after disease, long cough weak, cough phlegm blood, night sweat, is the only kind of Chinese medicine that can balance, regulate Yin and Yang at the same time.

 

Cordyceps militaris has several incomparable advantages compared with cordyceps sinensis:

 

First, cordyceps militaris is a model species of cordyceps, which is widely distributed and recognized by scholars all over the world.

Second, cordyceps militaris has grown into a complete set under artificial conditions.

Third, cordyceps militaris contains cordycepin and cordyceps polysaccharide, and its unique pharmacological effects have aroused increasing attention in the pharmaceutical circle. As cordyceps militaris has the above advantages, it has become the best of cordyceps in traditional Chinese medicine.

In fact, in general, certain organisms have certain biochemical reactions that produce certain biological substances. As for cordyceps sinensis, only through the biological absorption and synthesis of cordyceps sinensis, can various kinds of bioactive substances such as cordyceps sinensis, cordyceps acid and cordyceps polysaccharide be formed at the same time. Other biological or artificial chemical methods cannot be achieved at the same time. Artificial chemical methods can synthesize one but not many at the same time. Cordyceps sinensis is a bioreactor, no matter what method is used to produce it, the synthetic bioactive substances are the same. These bioactive substances have the same health care and medicinal value. Cordycepin, cordycepic acid and cordyceps polysaccharide are the special substances of cordyceps sinensis and the main indicators of its special efficacy. It is precisely because of these indicators that the content of cordyceps sinensis growing under the favorable conditions of artificial environment can be higher than that of natural conditions. The protein, amino acid and vitamin content of cultured cordyceps sinensis reached or exceeded the level of natural cordyceps sinensis. Although some nutrients in cultured cordyceps sinensis are slightly lower than those in natural cordyceps sinensis, these nutrients can be improved through research.



Chinese caterpillar fungus and ginseng, velvet antler along three supplements for the Chinese traditional famous Chinese and foreign, many experts at home and abroad to north Chinese caterpillar fungus nutrition chemical composition, pharmacological research and clinical effect, basically is the same as the Chinese caterpillar fungus, mainly include lung and benefiting kidney, hemostatic phlegm, regulate body function, the attending tuberculosis hemoptysis, impotence, spermatorrhea, waist and knee pain, beauty, nervous breakdown, diabetes mellitus, litres of white blood cells, anti-cancer, anti-cancer, has a very big effect on chemotherapy. The medicinal efficacy of artificially cultivated cordyceps sinensis is similar to that of wild cordyceps sinensis. In some aspects, the medical performance is even better than that of wild cordyceps sinensis. Pharmacology, pharmacology and clinical experiments have proved that cordyceps militaris can be used as a substitute for cordyceps sinensis. Research proves that the artificial cultivation of north aweto medicine clinical effect, the same as the natural cordyceps sinensis, also can adjust the body function, improve immune ability, enhance the phagocytosis of macrophage, and promote the formation of antibodies, mainly include the lung and kidney nourishing the liver, cough and asthma expectorant, moisturizing anti-wrinkle, anti-aging, antibacterial anti-inflammatory, sedative, dilate blood vessels, lower blood pressure, reduce blood sugar, resist fatigue, hypoxia, and so on. Artificial cordyceps sinensis is mainly used for treating such diseases as deficiency consumption, hemoptysis, waist and knee pain, impotence, spermatorrhea, neurasthenia, palpitations, insomnia, night sweats, arrhythmia, loss of appetite, nasopharyngeal cancer, emphysema, tuberculosis, bronchitis, asthma, hepatitis, nephritis, kidney deficiency, diabetes, frequency of urination, and leukopenia after chemotherapy.

 



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